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The continued presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia after the war was one of the stated motivations behind the 11 September terrorist attacks ,  the Khobar Towers bombing , and the date chosen for the US embassy bombings 7 August , which was eight years to the day that US troops were sent to Saudi Arabia.
In a December interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai , bin Laden said he felt that Americans were "too near to Mecca" and considered this a provocation to the entire Islamic world.
On 6 August , after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait , the UN Security Council adopted Resolution which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo , excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity, these to be determined by the council's sanctions committee.
From until , the effects of government policy and sanctions regime led to hyperinflation , widespread poverty and malnutrition.
During the late s, the UN considered relaxing the sanctions imposed because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis.
Studies dispute the number of people who died in south and central Iraq during the years of the sanctions. The draining of the Qurna Marshes was an irrigation project in Iraq during and immediately after the war, to drain a large area of marshes in the Tigris—Euphrates river system.
Formerly covering an area of around 3, square kilometers, the large complex of wetlands were nearly emptied of water, and the local Shi'ite population relocated, following the war and uprisings.
The draining of the Qurna Marshes also called The Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes occurred in Iraq and to a smaller degree in Iran between the s and s to clear large areas of the marshes in the Tigris-Euphrates river system.
The marshes are typically divided into three main sub-marshes, the Hawizeh , Central, and Hammar Marshes and all three were drained at different times for different reasons.
Initial draining of the Central Marshes was intended to reclaim land for agriculture but later all three marshes would become a tool of war and revenge.
Many international organizations such as the UN Human Rights Commission , the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq , the Wetlands International , and Middle East Watch have described the project as a political attempt to force the Marsh Arabs out of the area through water diversion tactics.
The Kuwaiti oil fires were caused by the Iraqi military setting fire to oil wells as part of a scorched earth policy while retreating from Kuwait in after conquering the country but being driven out by coalition forces.
The fires started in January and February , and the last one was extinguished by November. The resulting fires burned uncontrollably because of the dangers of sending in firefighting crews.
Land mines had been placed in areas around the oil wells, and a military cleaning of the areas was necessary before the fires could be put out.
Apart from the impact on Arab States of the Persian Gulf , the resulting economic disruptions after the crisis affected many states.
The Overseas Development Institute ODI undertook a study in to assess the effects on developing states and the international community's response.
A briefing paper finalized on the day that the conflict ended draws on their findings which had two main conclusions: Many developing states were severely affected and while there has been a considerable response to the crisis, the distribution of assistance was highly selective.
The ODI factored in elements of "cost" which included oil imports, remittance flows, re-settlement costs, loss of export earnings and tourism.
International response to the crisis on developing states came with the channeling of aid through The Gulf Crisis Financial Co-ordination Group.
The World Bank responded by speeding up the disbursement of existing project and adjustment loans.
The war was heavily televised. For the first time, people all over the world watched live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters departing from aircraft carriers.
Allied forces were keen to demonstrate their weapons' accuracy. But, moments later, Shepard returned as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground.
Rather, after the report was finished, announced unconfirmed reports of flashes in Baghdad and heavy air traffic at bases in Saudi Arabia.
Moments later, Brokaw announced to his viewers that the air attack had begun. Still, it was CNN whose coverage gained the most popularity and indeed its wartime coverage is often cited as one of the landmark events in the network's history, ultimately leading to the establishment of CNN International.
The network had previously convinced the Iraqi government to allow installation of a permanent audio circuit in their makeshift bureau. When the telephones of all the other Western TV correspondents went dead during the bombing, CNN was the only service able to provide live reporting.
After the initial bombing, Arnett remained behind and was, for a time, the only American TV correspondent reporting from Iraq.
The station was short lived, ending shortly after President Bush declared the ceasefire and Kuwait's liberation. However, it paved the way for the later introduction of Radio Five Live.
They were responsible for a report which included an "infamous cruise missile that travelled down a street and turned left at a traffic light.
Newspapers all over the world also covered the war and Time magazine published a special issue dated 28 January , the headline "War in the Gulf" emblazoned on the cover over a picture of Baghdad taken as the war began.
US policy regarding media freedom was much more restrictive than in the Vietnam War. The policy had been spelled out in a Pentagon document entitled Annex Foxtrot.
Most of the press information came from briefings organized by the military. Only selected journalists were allowed to visit the front lines or conduct interviews with soldiers.
Those visits were always conducted in the presence of officers, and were subject to both prior approval by the military and censorship afterward.
This was ostensibly to protect sensitive information from being revealed to Iraq. This policy was heavily influenced by the military's experience with the Vietnam War, in which public opposition within the US grew throughout the war's course.
It was not only the limitation of information in the Middle East; media were also restricting what was shown about the war with more graphic depictions like Ken Jarecke 's image of a burnt Iraqi soldier being pulled from the American AP wire whereas in Europe it was given extensive coverage.
At the same time, the war's coverage was new in its instantaneousness. About halfway through the war, Iraq's government decided to allow live satellite transmissions from the country by Western news organizations, and US journalists returned en masse to Baghdad.
Throughout the war, footage of incoming missiles was broadcast almost immediately. A British crew from CBS News, David Green and Andy Thompson, equipped with satellite transmission equipment, traveled with the front line forces and, having transmitted live TV pictures of the fighting en route, arrived the day before the forces in Kuwait City, broadcasting live television from the city and covering the entrance of the Arab forces the next day.
Alternative media outlets provided views opposing the war. Deep Dish Television compiled segments from independent producers in the US and abroad, and produced a hour series that was distributed internationally, called The Gulf Crisis TV Project.
News World Order  was the title of another program in the series; it focused on the media's complicity in promoting the war, as well as Americans' reactions to the media coverage.
In San Francisco, Paper Tiger Television West produced a weekly cable television show with highlights of mass demonstrations, artists' actions, lectures, and protests against mainstream media coverage at newspaper offices and television stations.
Local media outlets in cities across the USA screened similar oppositional media. The following names have been used to describe the conflict itself: Gulf War and Persian Gulf War are the most common terms for the conflict used within western countries , though it may also be called the First Gulf War to distinguish it from the invasion of Iraq and the subsequent Iraq War.
Most of the coalition states used various names for their operations and the war's operational phases. These are sometimes incorrectly used as the conflict's overall name, especially the US Desert Storm :.
Precision-guided munitions were heralded as key in allowing military strikes to be made with a minimum of civilian casualties compared to previous wars, although they were not used as often as more traditional, less accurate bombs.
Specific buildings in downtown Baghdad could be bombed while journalists in their hotels watched cruise missiles fly by. Precision-guided munitions amounted to approximately 7.
Other bombs included cluster bombs , which disperse numerous submunitions,  and daisy cutters , 15,pound bombs which can disintegrate everything within hundreds of yards.
Global Positioning System GPS units were relatively new at the time and were important in enabling coalition units to easily navigate across the desert.
Since military GPS receivers were not available for most troops, many used commercially available units. To permit these to be used to best effect, the "selective availability" feature of the GPS system was turned off for the duration of Desert Storm, allowing these commercial receivers to provide the same precision as the military equipment.
Both were used in command and control area of operations. These systems provided essential communications links between air, ground, and naval forces.
It is one of several reasons coalition forces dominated the air war. American-made color photocopiers were used to produce some of Iraq's battle plans.
Some of the copiers contained concealed high-tech transmitters that revealed their positions to American electronic warfare aircraft , leading to more precise bombings.
The role of Iraq's Scud missiles featured prominently in the war. Scud is a tactical ballistic missile that the Soviet Union developed and deployed among the forward deployed Soviet Army divisions in East Germany.
Scud missiles utilize inertial guidance which operates for the duration that the engines operate. Iraq used Scud missiles, launching them into both Saudi Arabia and Israel.
Some missiles caused extensive casualties, while others caused little damage. The US Patriot missile was used in combat for the first time.
There have also been numerous depictions in film including Jarhead , which is based on US Marine Anthony Swofford 's memoir of the same name.
Gulf War. Redirected from Operation Desert Storm. This article is about the war in — For other wars of that name, see Gulf War disambiguation.
For other uses, see Desert Storm disambiguation. Coalition :. George H. Yeosock Walter E. William Kime Robert B.
Main article: Gulf War air campaign. Israeli civilians taking shelter from missiles top and aftermath of attack in Ramat Gan, Israel bottom.
Main article: Battle of Khafji. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Battle of Norfolk. See also: Task Force Infantry. Main article: Liberation of Kuwait campaign.
See also: Gulf War order of battle ground campaign. Main article: uprisings in Iraq. Main article: Coalition of the Gulf War.
Main article: Australian contribution to the Gulf War. Main article: Aftermath of the Gulf War. Main article: Gulf War syndrome. Main article: Highway of Death.
Main article: Palestinian exodus from Kuwait Gulf War. Main article: Operation Southern Watch. United Nations Security Council Resolution Main article: Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes.
Main article: Gulf War oil spill. Main article: Kuwaiti oil fires. See also: Environmental impact of war. Main article: Media coverage of the Gulf War.
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate.
January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: List of Gulf War military equipment.
Different sources may call the conflicts by different names. The name ' Persian Gulf ' is itself a subject of dispute.
This dating is also used to distinguish it from the other two 'Gulf Wars'. The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm.
Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 5 November Retrieved 13 September Chain of Command.
Penguin Books. MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November Robert H. Brassey's, , p. Crusade, The untold story of the Persian Gulf War.
The U. The Iraqi air force was either destroyed early on or opted out of combat under the relentless attack.
After 42 days of relentless attacks by the allied coalition in the air and on the ground, President Bush declared a cease-fire on February 28; by that time, most Iraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. January Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 15 August Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 12 November Retrieved 15 September New York: Alfred A.
Knopf, p. Secretary of State Colin Powell's presentation to the U. Security Council on the U. Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 30 September Government Publishing Office.
Mission Accomplished? Appendix A. Bill Clinton. In addition to the th SOAR's creation, the US Defense Department now trains many military helicopter pilots in low-level penetration, aerial refueling and use of night-vision goggles.
In addition to the formal report, various reasons for the mission failure have been argued, with most analysts agreeing that an excessively complex plan, poor operational planning, flawed command structure, lack of adequate pilot training and poor weather conditions were all contributing factors and combined to doom the operation.
The embassy hostages were subsequently scattered across Iran to preclude any second rescue attempt and were released on 20 January , minutes after Ronald Reagan had taken the oath of office after winning the election against Carter.
Dedicated in , the Iran Rescue Mission Memorial consists of a white marble column with a bronze plaque listing the names and ranks of those who lost their lives during the mission.
Three of the men — Maj. Harold Lewis Jr. Joel Mayo — are buried in a grave marked by a common headstone, located about 25 feet from the group memorial.
The incident is considered as a US defeat and is commemorated annually in Tabas where government officials, religious leaders and people gather and display wreckage of the American planes and helicopters from the incident.
An Iranian air-defense system is named Tabas , in commemoration of the crash site. Shortly after the first mission failed, planning for a second rescue mission was authorized under the name Project Honey Badger.
Plans and exercises were conducted,  but the manpower and aircraft requirements grew to involve nearly a battalion of troops, more than fifty aircraft, and such contingencies as transporting a ton bulldozer to rapidly clear a blocked runway.
Even though numerous rehearsal exercises were successful, the helicopters' failure during the first attempt resulted in the development of a subsequent concept involving only fixed-wing STOL aircraft capable of flying from the US to Iran using aerial refueling, then returning to land on an aircraft carrier for medical treatment of wounded.
The concept called Operation Credible Sport , was developed but never implemented. It called for a modified Hercules, the YMCH, outfitted with rocket thrusters fore and aft to allow an extremely short landing and take-off in Amjadieh Stadium.
Three aircraft were modified under a rushed secret program. The first fully modified aircraft crashed during a demonstration at Duke Field at Eglin Air Force Base on 29 October , when its landing braking rockets were fired too soon.
The misfire caused a hard touchdown that tore off the starboard wing and started a fire. All onboard survived without injury.
The impending change of administration in the White House forced this project's abandonment. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the operation during the Iran Hostage Crisis. It is not to be confused with the Catholic Relief Services program to end hunger and poverty.
Near Tabas , South Khorasan , Iran. Iran hostage crisis. Furious, Vance handed in his resignation on principle, calling Brzezinski "evil".
The box provided a touchdown area and the far light marked the end of the rollout area. He was discovered on a flight from Tehran at the last minute by another CIA officer, and confirmed that the hostages were centrally located in the embassy compound — this was a key piece of information long sought by the planners.
It had originally been positioned behind the EC by a flight technique in which its nose gear was held off the ground while it rolled on its main gear.
McMillan, Navigator. Harvey, Cpl George N. The USAF special operations units that supplied the rescue attempt's MC elements were awarded the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award for both that year and the next, had the initial squadron of nine HH Pave Low helicopters transferred from Military Airlift Command to its jurisdiction for long-range low-level night flying operations, and became co-hosts at its home base of Hurlburt Field with Air Force Special Operations Command.
The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 September USA Today. Retrieved 6 January Air Force Magazine. Retrieved 5 May The Boston Globe.
Retrieved 15 April To ensure the Iraqi army would be sufficiently weakened before launching the counter-invasion, the Coalition started a vicious aerial bombardment of Iraq as well as Iraqi forces in Kuwait.
The sustained air campaign from the Coalition targeted Iraqi air-defense systems, communications systems, government buildings, oil fields, and vital bridges and roads.
After just three days of the ground campaign, Kuwait was liberated and on February 27, , Coalition troops stopped attacking Iraqi forces after learning they were to comply with the original United Nations resolution.
April 6, , marked the day that Iraq accepted the terms of a cease-fire agreement and the First Gulf War formally ended.
Some of this payment was not monetary but service-related such as food and transport while United States troops were based in Saudi Arabia.
Since United States forces represented almost three-quarters of the troops fighting the conflict, the country absorbed a lot of the initial costs.New Strategy Game! Desert Order is a Strategy Game that you can play in your Browser. You can play this Game online. Here you play with navy units, trains, helicopters, air fighters against real players. You can see is a Screenshot for this Game. In this game, you can build your base and build your own empire, as well as work in team with other. Desert Operations es un juego gratuito y estratégico de milicia y comercio donde puedes enfrentarte a miles de jugadores. En este juego de navegador no sólo se decide un combate por el número de tropas, pero también necesitarás aplicar tus mejores tácticas y estrategias para ganar la guerra a largo plazo. Desert-Operations. Desert Operations est un jeu de stratégie gratuit dans lequel vous pouvez vous mesurer à des milliers d'autres joueurs. Dans ce jeu par navigateur, non seulement le nombre de troupes a une influence majeure sur l’issue d’un combat, mais la stratégie et vos compétences en tant que commandant sont aussi cruciales. Desert Operations is a free trading and military strategy game, where you can face thousands of other players. Within this browser game not only the number of troops will decide whether you will be victorious but also tactics and strategy have a major impact. Desert Operations. Desert Operations is a free military strategy game, where you can face thousands of other players for combat or trade. Rushing your enemy with a great number of troops will not be enough, when you'll need tactics and strategy for the bigger picture. As a Commander, you'll be in charge of 30 buildings and over 50 ground, air and sea units. Command your troopsfighter jets, heavy tanks, bombers Neue Online Games warships around the world. Desert Operations Desert Operations is a free trading and military strategy game, where you can face thousands of other players. Analizza i rapporti di battaglia in tempo reale e Anderes Wort Für Gewinn la tua strategia. Desert Operations is a free military strategy game, where you can face thousands of other players for combat or trade. Take control of oil fields and interfere to conflicts by cutting off the opponent's supplies.